Writing Worthwhile Objectives
objectives, performance objectives, behavioral objectives-we call them by
many names. Whatever you or your organization calls them, we are all talking
about the formation of clear statements of what we intend the learner to
be able to do as a result of instruction.
The trick is to not only make the
statement clear, but also to make sure our objectives are worthwhile- that
is, they describe the actual competencies needed by the learner to perform
at the level needed. Below are some tips that should help both in developing objectives and in writing worthwhile objectives.
1. Realize that the learning objectives for an instructional program are different than job objectives. For example, a job objective for a sales organization might be to increase sales by 5% in the next corporate year. The learning objectives would have to do with acquiring knowledge and skills that would increase the likelihood of increasing sales by 5%. Determining this knowledge and skills should come from a careful needs analysis to determine either what is lacking or what can be learned to increase the probability that the sales people will be able to increase sales by 5%. In one case, for example, sales people did not know how to take customers through the discovery process. Therefore, the learning objectives had to do with acquiring the skills of asking questions of the customers to discover their needs related to the services provided by the supplier.
2. Learning objectives cannot be adequately formulated considering only the content to be learned. They must also be created with the context and learners in mind. For example, if you are told that you only have two hours for a training program, you cannot expect to make high level problem solvers out of the learners due to the time limitation. You would have to ask yourself what can we teach people to do in two hours that would help move them towards being better problem solvers.
3. When writing objectives, it is often hard to know where to begin and how
to write objectives at the right level. Here's are two suggestions:
While keeping the business need and content analysis close at hand, ask yourself at what level do you want the students to be performing when they return to or go to their new job? Do you want them merely to comprehend certain concepts or do you want them to actually be apply the concepts and skills you have to teach them? This thought process can be assisted by looking at the different levels of the cognitive, psychomotor or sometimes affective learning domains. Chose a high enough level and write your objective to match that level of knowledge and performance. Many standard textbooks in instructional development have action verbs listed that are associated with each of the different levels of performance.
Another way help get started writing worthwhile objectives is to look at what the learner is expected to do on the job and think about how to write an objective that calls for simulating their work. In other words, write the objectives of the training in ways that mimic the job they perform.
For example, if the job involves order processing then the objectives of
the program should include providing the learner product request and having
the learner process orders. If learners are to produce sales presentation
on the job, then the objectives should include planning. designing, and producing
sales presentation given a real a world scenario (see our last two month's
tips newsletter s on authentic learning activities by Peter Honebein).
4. Objectives should be validated against the content analysis and business need once written, since they will serve as the basis for presentation strategy, providing appropriate practice, and assessment of what has been learned. Because objectives are the basis for targeting the outcomes of the training program, considerable time and effort should be spent in this area. In fact, moving a training development project through the necessary stages of needs analysis, content analysis and formulating the learning objectives may take as much as 40% of the project time.
Until next time,
Article © 2005 Darryl L. Sink & Associates, Inc